Internationalization and localization are terms used to describe the effort to make WordPress (and other such projects) available in languages other than English, for people from different locales, who use different dialects and local preferences.
The process of localizing a program has two steps. The first step is when the program’s developers provide a mechanism and method for the eventual translation of the program and its interface to suit local preferences and languages for users worldwide. WordPress developers have done this, so in theory, WordPress can be used in any language.
The second step is the actual localization, the process by which the text on the page and other settings are translated and adapted to another language and culture, using the framework prescribed by the developers of the software. WordPress has already been localized into many otinformation).
This article explains how translators (bi- or multi-lingual WordPress users) can go about localizing WordPress to more languages.
Before you start translating WordPress, check WordPress in Your Language (and resources cited there) to see if a translation of WordPress into your language already exists. It is also possible that someone (or a team) is already working on translating WordPress into your language, but they haven’t finished yet. To find out, subscribe to the polyglots’ blog, introduce yourself, and ask if there’s anyone translating into your language. There is also a list of localization teams and localization teams currently forming, which you can check to see if a translation is in progress.
Assuming that a WordPress translation into your language does not already exist or has someone working on it, you may want to volunteer to create a public translation of WordPress into your language. If so, here are the qualifications you will need:
- You need to be truly bilingual — fluent in both written English and the language(s) you will be translating into. Casual knowledge of either one will make translating difficult for you, or make the localization you create confusing to native speakers.
- You need to be familiar with PHP, as you will sometimes need to read through the WordPress code to figure out the best way to translate messages.
- You should be familiar with human language constructs: nouns, verbs, articles, etc., different types of each, and be able to identify variations of their contexts in English.
A locale is a combination of language and regional dialect. Usually locales correspond to countries, as is the case with Portuguese (Portugal) and Portuguese (Brazil).
You can do a translation for any locale you wish, even other English locales such as Canadian English or Australian English, to adjust for regional spelling and idioms.
The default locale of WordPress is U.S. English.
WordPress’s developers chose to use the ocalization framework to provide localization infrastructure to WordPress. gettext is a mature, widely used framework for modular translation of software, and is the de facto standard for localization in the open source/free software realm.
gettext uses message-level translation — that is, every “message” displayed to users is translated individually, whether it be a paragraph or a single word. In WordPress, such “messages” are generated, translated, and used by the WordPress PHP files via two PHP functions. __() is used when the message is passed as an argument to another function; _e() is used to write the message directly to the page. More detail on these two functions:
- Searches the localization module for the translation of $message, and passes the translation to the PHP return statement. If no translation is found for $message, it just returns $message.